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Montreal & Kyoto Protocols

European Space Agency


page last modified:
April 2005
Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty governing the protection of stratospheric ozone, originally signed in 1987 and substantially amended in 1990 and 1992.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, as it is called in full, and its amendments are international treaties requiring that countries end production of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs and halons). To assist in reaching this goal, several international organisations report on the science of ozone depletion, implement projects to help move away from ozone-depleting substances, and provide a forum for policy discussions. The full text of the Montreal Protocol is available online.


Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement on the reduction of greenhous gas emissions and on mechanisms aimed at cutting the costs of reducing emissions, in order to address possible changes in the climate. In effect, the Kyoto Protocol requires the world's developed countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5% from 1990 levels by 2008-2010.